Vaccination is an effective measure to prevent infectious diseases

 

December 14, 2020

Humanity meets the XXI century against the background of further intensification of immunoprophylaxis. The fight against infectious diseases included in the who Expanded immunization programme (EPI) has already made some progress. Currently, more than 80% of the world's child population (more than 130 million children) is covered by preventive vaccinations.

Who estimates that vaccination can prevent about 2.5 million deaths each year, but more than 4 million children die from preventable diseases.

 

Immunization is recognized as a core component of human rights to health, as is the responsibility of health professionals, individuals, communities, and governments. In this regard, it is appropriate to mention the Vienna (1993) and Ottawa (1998) Declarations on the right of the child to health, which state that "the actions of a doctor who unreasonably withdraws a child from vaccination may amount to failure to provide them with emergency medical care".

The implementation of social and medical measures is primarily evaluated by their beneficial effect on public health and on the demographic changes of the people of each individual country.

From this perspective, reducing overall mortality, especially child mortality, remains a priority. Ensuring that health care is moving in the right direction in General, and immunoprophylaxis in particular, especially for each country, is a serious challenge. It directly depends on the economic capabilities of the state. Providing immunoprophylactic assistance to the population in a country with a stable positive economy should be efficient and effective.

Vaccinated children, protected from the threat of a number of infectious diseases, have a chance of normal physical development and full realization of their potential. These benefits are enhanced by vaccination of adolescents as well as adults. To make sure that what has been said is correct, it is enough to refer to the statistical data. Over the past twentieth century, the average life expectancy of the population in developed countries has increased by 30 years, of which 25 years are due to immunoprophylaxis.

Polio elimination is almost complete on a global scale (it is registered only in 4 countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria). The number of deaths from measles is decreasing every year.

Due to the continuing high incidence and mortality of malignant neoplasms in the world and Kazakhstan (according to who forecasts, these indicators will increase by 1.5-2 times by 2020), Kazakhstan has adopted a program for the development of cancer care for 2012-2016 for the first time in the post-Soviet space. (approved by the Decree of the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 29.03.2012 No. 366). The Program provides for the gradual introduction of vaccination of adolescent girls against papillomavirus infection that causes cervical cancer in 2013 (funding of 10.4 billion rubles was determined). tenge).

The world Health Organization's experience in implementing the Global immunization program has proven the epidemiological and cost-effectiveness of infectious disease vaccination. The global eradication of smallpox and the success of regional polio elimination programmes made it possible to set the goal of measles elimination for European health in 1998. The prerequisites for achieving this goal were the availability of an effective vaccine and an effective epidemiological surveillance system.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan, since the beginning of routine measles vaccination (since 1967), the incidence has decreased by more than 150 times, rubella (since 2005) – up to 1600 times.

The introduction of the hepatitis b vaccine prevention program in Kazakhstan since 1998 has contributed to a sharp decrease in the incidence rate. This made it possible to achieve a noticeable positive effect on both mortality rates and the frequency of formation of chronic forms of the disease. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, active vaccination of adolescents and adults in the decreed age group(16, 26, 36, 46, 56 years) against diphtheria contributed to a persistent decrease in the circulation activity of not only toxigenic strains of diphtheria pathogens, but also non-toxigenic strains, as a result of which no cases of diphtheria have been registered since 2008.

Medical immunobiological preparations (mibp) - vaccines, anatoxins, immunoglobulins recommended by who, registered and approved for use in the Republic of Kazakhstan-are used for preventive vaccinations of the population. Centralized procurement of mibp, disposable syringes and safe disposal containers (CBUs) is provided.

In Kazakhstan and planned for epidokruzhenii vaccination of the population belongs to preventive measures and included in the guaranteed volume of free medical aid (code of the RK "About health and the health care system") and all mibp included in the national calendar of preventive vaccination and number of vaccines on the immunization schedule according to plan and epidemiological indications, anti-rabies, typhoid, tick-borne encephalitis, and plague are purchased centrally at the expense of the Republican budget, and vaccines against HAV, influenza, anthrax, tularemia is purchased at the expense of the local budget.

Immunization is one of the most effective and cost-effective medical interventions. It should be considered not only as an expenditure, but also as an investment in the health system that ensures the preservation and promotion of public health.

 

Meiramgul Gabasova - doctor-epidemiologist of CNCDS

Galia Sairambekova – head. Department of CNCDS

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